The Alternative Digest

A. Pokrovsky
The Alternative
The modern generation is gravely concerned about the unfavourable state of our society (unemployment, diseases, wars, crime, ecological disasters etc).
Diverse philosophical, political and economic theories are trying to design a system for getting out of the crisis leading to a catastrophe.
However the major problems characterizing the crisis of social development are not solved up to now. It is essentially necessary to search for the alternative model of economic, social and moral structure. It should be based on the profound analysis of the historical material with the achievements in the fields of exact sciences taken into consideration (Lobachevsky's, Einstein's and Reman's theories), economics (the property problem, the theory of market relations, and social psychology. There is a law of getting mankind out of a crisis and people should be aware of it. It is possible to define its efficiency and justifiability only through the practice of real life. It is necessary to discard orthodoxical theories and turn back to the onset of the historical count off in human life.
Multilateral study of the life of society gives all the grounds to suppose that each power unit demands its own space of a definite quantitative and qualitative measuring. This life space belongs to Man by the law of the universe and no other private organization (government in the first place) is not entitled to continuous by violate the functioning of the law.
Everyone is to understand the elementary truth that all the people without exception should be the owners of the planet's nature. There was no similar initial circumstance in the world practice of moral and philosophical principles of the structure of human community. The issue of ownership of land is the starting point of the coordination of the control of social relations. It is worth changing the attitude towards social space in principle.
Private ownership which has been established in the system of social relations, contains in itself the constantly functioning law of antagonism. Government is the dominant land-owner under capitalism and under so called socialist economy.
A new society, based on public ownership, originates from the premise of absolutely free will of every member of society to enjoy equal rights.
Determining the income of a person through the calculation of rent payments for every used spot of land and adding all other taxes as a form of the increase of rent deductions, people divide the general sought for sum into the number of people living on the territory where everyone is able to add something individually new which is not yet mastered by society and appropriated by an individual as a personal income, as a reward for speed, intelligence and an individual ability in contact with nature and society.
One's personal freedom can be limited only within the framework of voluntary agreement with those like oneself and by personal necessity in the social sphere of objective reality. Sometimes it requires individual, strictly voluntary payment from one's profit to a fund of stimulating public activity which is indispensible for the doer of the action.
Nature through its concrete forms was, is and will be the centre of multi-dimensional measurement of Man's destructive and creative activity by defining the potential difference for each concrete commensurability in the relations between people in their creation, exchange and consumption.
If to accept nature for the counting off centre of various disputes and methods of measurement, then its making public is the revelation of a new era of life and creative development of mankind where other problems will seem to be less significant and able to come nearer their solution much faster than it seemed in the period of life in the conditions of private ownership on nature. Future demands the solution of the issue with all its seeming complexity and the priority of others. This issue is on the agenda of mankind since its appearance on (he Earth, other problems are only later development of contraditions fastened by the unjust irrationality.
Let's turn to the history of mankind's development. Before Man's appearance on the Earth there was a long period of the synthesis of nature. There was established a multi-dimensional system of Man's life activity. The territory of the Earth which is a circumference in shape may be considered to be positively curved space where the movement and development of Man's like kind of power of material forms are possible. In these conditions one species of more power-consuming material forms occupying space limited by positive curvature destroys less power-consuming species of the matter absorbing its energy with the help of the synthesis, stopping its movement, development and depriving it of the possibility of existence (Later on it got the name of the law of natural selection).
Man appeared as an animal at the time when the law of private ownership in the form of natural selection was at its peak. The collision of energies in the various material forms of the species of animals demanded a more flexible apparatus of centralized distribution of creation and destruction energy, connection and disconnection energy.
The relations between people in an unlimited space of the immense planet were equal to overcoming the force of law of negative curvature of space which separated people where each of them alone was to perish by all means. That was fatal to Man's species.
On the other hand the high density of the population of different species of animals of the planet made the first man fight for his personal survival, for the existence of his species on the condition of the gradual assimilation of the territory of space, of the consumption of certain species of plants in food which deprived the competing species of space and they were doomed either to extinction through the assimilation with other species of animals or physical elimination by more power consuming and flexible man's consciousness.
The law of the struggle of Man by the way of natural selection with other species of animals was the law of the necessity of generating destruction energy under the density of connection with other species which inhabited the planet of animals where the force of positive curvature of space was in action (i.e. closed space).
The further increase of the population on the planet with the constant value of space created a greater density which deprived Man of an individual development and narrowed space for individual movement.
The law of the struggle for private ownership on space was transferred from the sphere of the animal world to the sphere of human society where part of people survived at the expense of elimination of others and appropriation of their part of limited space.
Mankind faced the problem to solve which resulted from the law of positive curvature of space. The need was to obey the law of unconscious movement of material forms within the encircled space which meant to consciously admit the impact of the law on public development through the right to the existence of the law of private ownership on land and consequently to divide society into space owners and those who were deprived of space. Private owners having at their disposal energy of the divided space could, according to their judgement, sustain people who were deprived of space on condition of their unquestioning obedience to their will, i.e. some people were masters, others were slaves, tools for the implementation of the designs of space owners.
Proceeding from the premise, one may trace the real historical way of the development of human society. Simultaneously it is necessary to point out those historical factors which might impel mankind to the creation of a different alternative social and economic model of society.
The problem of the independence and individual freedom from the elimination through appropriation of food products can be solved by perfectioning one's consciousness, by conceiving the natural technology of the creation of food products. The mastering of this technology helped Man to become free from natural dependence on food by submitting an indispensible powerful part to his consciousness.
Developing in the animal world Man should have physical force for his defence from an attack. He could be defended only by the chief and by the collective force of the tribe. The defence from an attack from animals made an individual submit completely and unquestionably to the force which defended him, to the chief in the first place.
The chief's will, supported by his force, created freedom guarantees in the development of an individual.
Human community while developing got separated according to the principle of kinship. Clans came into being, they began to help nature feed them by breaking up soil and throwing seeds in it. Experience, comprehension, studying of nature let people lead a settled way of life by having some definite plots of land on the Earth.
On overcoming the fear from animals' attack, eliminating them and appropriating their food, people began to fight one another for the plot of land which could provide them their living. Collective private ownership of clans on land is the first display of a yet inconceivable idea of private ownership of Man on the Earth territory.
The possibility of independent existence and relative freedom in the world of nature owing to the increase of labour productivity and knowledge entailed the splitting of the primitive communal system into its constituants - separate individuals.
The exchange of food products vitally important for life made up the proportion of their quantitative commeasurability. The inclusion into the exchange of different man-made commodities which reflect the level of the development of human consciousness (works of art) promoted the satisfaction of the need of perfection and beauty.
Different quantitative and qualitative proportions revealed the commodity of commodities - an equivalent which served for exchange of any commodity, that is gold. It was turned into a technical means of counting, and consequently into the means of practical knowledge. As soon as land was included into the trade turnover, its owner could be measured technically by a perfect way, by means of the quantity of gold which caused in its turn two cardinal opportunities of the development in society - individual and public. These two ways of public development were diametrically opposite in their essence and their forms of the realization of the possibilities of human development in the existing natural conditions: either nature will turn out to be in the hands of a small group of owners which will be really able to eliminate the whole society of the like or it will be the property of the human race which will be able to save its life and youth making their co-existence easy and more beautiful.
The technological elaboration of the way of transition of the planet into the property of the masses could be made up after the time when land was included in the turnover and the cost of its different plots was fixed. This circumstance, as it is clear from the above mentioned, appeared at the end of the primitive communal mode of production, i.e. before the formation and final creation of the military force of the future state structure of society, as at that time people were all armed as community defended and principles of division into tribes and private ownership on land belonged to the people of the tribe.
Thus, at the border line between the primitive communal system and the slave-owning system mankind historically was in the dilemma of choosing private ownership of land or making it the property of the masses. There appeared an alternative to the historically covered way, that is the creation of a mode of society based on the principles of humane and expedient attitude of people to one another and to nature.
We may suppose that at the borderline between primitive communal system and the slave-owning system the most intelligent people of the time offered to their tribesmen no personal private property as the panacea from all the troubles of the primitive communal development but the socialization (collectivization) of land with its natural riches such as natural resources, rivers, lakes and seas through the system of estimation of each plot of land, which serves an individual or a collective as a production base for getting surplus products for one's own sake. This estimate cost of every plot of land in a commodity which is an equivalent to all other goods can be included in the single public fund from which by all means everybody would get an equal share of commodity-equivalent. This commodity could be bartered for any other commodity which might be necessary to him not only for existence but for ample life. Everybody might use this commodity-equivalent freely and independently from somebody's will. The public fund might be the minimum of human vital activity through public cognition of power creative possibilities of nature.
The transfer of land from private ownership into the public one might be the transition from the law of positive curvature of space to the law of negative one where people living close to one another and constantly preventing one another from the development still striving for the display individuality but can't achieve it, but with the change of the conditions they will search for more close contacts with one another because their independence will be so great as to the quantity of power of consumption and so much supplied in the remote future with biopower resources, opened by joint cognition of society that Man would seem to be lonely and abandoned by all people in boundless power space.
He would be glad of association, of sharing all he has because his power consumption of the cognizable matter has no bounds.
The tragedy of the human race is that it followed the path of the development of private ownership mode of society through the systems of slave-owning, feudalism, capitalism, of state capitalism which is called socialism. There were many delusions in the world - as Gogol philosophised bitterly - which do not seem now to have been made by a child. What distorted, remote, narrow, impassible, leading far aside ways mankind has chosen while aspiring for the eternal truth, when it had an open direct way forward!
Collective private ownership on land gave rise to the necessity of wars between people that in its turn caused the apparition of organized force in the form of first temporary, then constant military organizations of collectives and through them of the whole society.
It was the beginning of such a public anomaly as a state] which got its concrete form, became an independent organization, got its strength in different forms at the division of private ownership on land between separate owners.
States got firmly established and appropriated the right to speak on behalf of the people. These private firms of violence divided all the territory of the planet between themselves. Thus a contradition emerged in the distribution of space between people living on the Earth and private state firms which appropriated by right of force the territory of the Earth as their own. As a result there were people of the planet deprived of the territory and henceforth of power of existence and development and strong people, owners of this territory. People did not know how to return the primogenital right of ownership to the territory, but private firms - states fortifying their power and force had no thought of the restoration of historical, biological, ecological, justice. A great army of scholars appeared and they gave scientific grounds for sovereignty and territorial inviolability of states. Consequently on the same territory there were two organizations: private - in the face of a state and people as a public organization of self-survival.
Types and forms of state organizations historically followed one another.
Authoritarian systems are simple in a sense that state discipline based on voluntarism, the army force, the police exercises complete unrestricted control over all the area. Authoritaritive structures exercise complete control over the population of this territory having no illusions about liberating people on the basis of democratic ideology.
Democratic systems are more complicated. The state demands the authoritative discipline, the strengthening of power and the increase of taxation from all the territory, but society lives under the illusion of freedom, equality and justice, primarily these ideas are illusory because of the insoluble problem of public ownership on land. If this starting point is solved in favour of society, democracy will get its material realization, there will be a real possibility to unite power and people. Democracy will be real power of people.
By appropriating all the taxes the state deprives people of the right to ownership on land and thus annihilates the only real material ground for equality and freedom of every member of society. All the theories justifying private withdrawal of means for the state fund in the name of freedom and equality of people are false and serve the private interests of a small group of owners and slavery oppression of all the people of the planet.
In contemporary conditions all the institutions of democracy prove to be a complete fiction: authoritative powers, the system of election and appointment, the ways of the elucidation of agreement of all people, the technique of approval by means of referendum and polls.
The idea of people's representatives is imposed. Through their legislative activity they in the interests of society consolidate private state corporative fraud which serves the strengthening of the state apparatus.
In the similar social economic situation the sphere of human vital activity is much wider and more diverse than it is defined by the law-makers of the state. A certain part of citizens with this or that degree of realization confirms its loyalty to the law; the other part of society may be considered to have violated the law by force of the practice of their life. Without giving a moral appraisal of this activity (its spectrum may be very wide) it should be said that criminals are united by the idea of the liquidation of the law which prevents their activity. Many structural principles of this group (their code of honour, mutual aid with the help of mutual aid fund etc) at first sight paradoxical, as they may seem, may serve now as a cell, a certain sample of organizing society in the future. It is evident that criminal ideology on penetrating into the economy got its solid material support, the social basis of its emergence has considerably increased.
All above mentioned brings about the idea of the necessity of a way out of the current socio-economic situation.
Expedient socio-economic changes are related to the just decision of the only fundamental issue, i.e. giving back ownership of life and activity space to its genuine owner, that is society and future generations, people like owners should have their constant share of space energy.
This process is undoubtedly extensive in the space of time and has a stage-by-stage character.
It is necessary to understand that Man is in space which supplies him with energy. Primordially use value of different plots of land is unequal. Ground rent will intensively increase at better places for inhabitants on the Earth and less intensively in the provinces. To live on the Earth on the territory with higher rent Man should have additional profit to cover the difference between higher rent at better places of inhabitance and that equal for all part of material upkeep from society. That's why it is necessary to introduce the notion which determines the aggregate unit of measuring consuming properties of natural materials.
By combining the difference in the consuming properties of different plots of land without taking into account personal mode of activity in contact with nature, mankind would create equal opportunities of existence for everybody, as these who had worse space position for life would be given a compensation from equally divided sum of general use value and it would amount to additional space containing that missing energy for equality with others.
No organization must and has the right to accumulate this energy as its own property.
At first people inherited from nature the necessity of perfection of their organisms for more integral connection with constantly changing nature. The perfection of the organism naturally entails the development of the mind which enables Man to spend less energy for withstanding the forces of nature though both the processes are mutually conditioned and can't exist without each other, i.e. if the movement of nature is aspiring to the positive curvature of space, the mind (consciousness) increases the negative curvature of space.
Man is in contact with nature for the satisfaction of his necessities of life. Nature and Man interact in power exchange through materially stipulated form of synthesis, where decomposition conforms to compound.
The attitude of nature to Man is always equally active because space constantly generates consumption energy which Man when appropriating calls profit. Nature only changes the variations of forms demanding attention to itself and its development on the part of Man, which would allow Man to be supplied for ever with energy that is generated by great and multidimensional space.
But is it always so that Man's attitude to nature is motivated by the idea of expediency? The violations of nature balance is fraught with an ecological catastrophe. At present due to deforestation the extermination of the lungs of the planet - carbonic acid gas, the product of civilization, can't be converted by the plants photosynthesis. Thus the ozone layer of the atmosphere is being quickly depleted with the aid of sulphuric compounds. The sun rays getting to the Earth unimpeded increase the medium positive temperature regime of the planet. The global warming will cause melting of the stored water resources concentrated in the ice-houses of the South and North Poles.
This is the scenario of a possible ecological catastrophe and deceased mankind as a result of it.
But Nature of the Earth (with given arrangement of planets) is capable of regeneration. Abundance of water and global warming will cause a new intensive growth of plants, as a result of it the intensification of photosynthesis will bring about the absorbability of carbonic acid gas and the restoration of the protective layer of the atmosphere over the Earth's surface. The temperature balance will go down and the abundance of water will be accumulated by the ice-houses. The natural balance of the planet will be restored and its eternal beauty will sparkle.
Man is an inalienable part of nature, a human being with the functions of intelligent personification. Male and female individuals were essential for the increase of life span and for the continuation of humankind. In the struggle for survival, in the cognition of multi dimential space the relationship of Man and nature was more often than not dramatic.
Nature which is not cognized by Man yet continues to revenge itself upon him; the mysteries of epidemics, floods, earthquakes, deaths are not yet discovered. Nature awarded Man the cell of cancer, a terminal illness. Next blow was delivered by it on the essential ability of Man to survive - on the system of reproduction of similar species.
Aids brought mankind the horrors which deprive men and women of natural relationship and sincerity in their interaction. It may seem that man is unconsciously falling into the abyss of vanishing off the surface of the Earth. Nature intensively began stamping incurable illnesses for people. But where is a guarantee that will stop halfway in this process? And still there is hope for physical and spiritual resurrection of mankind for this it is necessary to change the system of ownership on space by solving the problem of power-supply, by struggling with still considered incurable diseases. Man should cognize the simple truth (we are repeating it in this new context): everybody living on the Earth is an owner of the whole cosmic space and of its small part, the planet of Earth. If only reasonably agreed, every owner may exercise his rights of ownership of anybody else.
Man exchanges power with Nature. This power is contained in different forms of space, material and ideal. (Reality and principles of attitude to nature comprehended by the individual.)
Because of the unique nature of every member of human community he uses in the aggregate natural space the material which to a great extent conforms to his moral and physical possibilities. Thus he satisfies not only his own wants, but through exchange the system of market relations, the needs of other people (the connection of use value with a consumer is called market). The condition of equality of man in surrounding space will intensively raise the level of his knowledge, will determine his reasonable, thrifty and rational attitude to nature. It will enable him to expand the borders of space at the expense of its multidimesional character and will increase power-consumption of space per unit of its consumer. In the last analysis public ownership will acquire such forms of its comprehensive development (private ownership on space will not equal it in any aspect) that the owner will be able to accumulate power at any appropriate time and for any practical or Scientific purposes.
What are the stages of achievement?
The 1st stage supposes the transmission of the Earth's space into the ownership of the people through equivalent levelling of rights of ownership on public power-accumulated in space and consumed by everybody.
The 2nd stage. The rationalization of expenditure and revenue of consumption power accumulated by man from surrounding space. It demands a considerable base of knowledge about natural phenomena and social and moral structure of Man.
The 3rd stage. The result of the analysis of the balance of expenditure and revenue from rational positions which will find its expression in search of social forms of economic and free social unions as counter balance to free display of private possibilities of an individual to accumulate, rationalize and solve problems of the quickest contact of natural materials and human needs in the variety of constantly changing multi-dimensional character of space.
The 4th stage. It is a stage when personal property will serve as the material and an object of amalgamation into publicly collective ownership contrary to privately collective one.
The 5th stage of its development will be defined by Mankind as the appearance of objectively planning principles of the newly forms of public ownership and ways of their public functioning where rationalism will be a way of economizing time, power, public space and consequently the increase of the speed of individual and therefore collective and public development.
The 6th stage will be characterized by the search of public forms of possession of all kinds of ownership with ample freedom of personal consumption of power from these natural public storages in proportion to an individual necessity.
The 7th stage of the development of human society will complete the transition of all forms of private property into public one as the most rational and capable of securing the development of an individual much faster than with all kinds of personal private ownership which deprived everybody of enormous quantity of time and power that ran counter to the general tendency of the individual development.
To confiscate property on land from state-private formation and to pass it over to people's inalienable property means to remove contradictions in the system of social structure as the structures which people do not need will be inactive due to the absence of material sources in the form of property on land and taxes.
The future individual, possessing ownership on land, has his own contribution into and the right to getting interest from general revenue, i.e. equal part from all tax payments. That's why he can't be considered unemployed or a have-not. But if an individual wants to have more, let him take a plot of land, implement its project or let him in contact with others participate in the production and other forms of socially useful labour with getting his share of revenue to add to the equal with others share of revenue for ownership on public space. Gold is historically considered to be a general commodity-equivalent. On getting the payment for his labour in gold which at the same time is supported by ownership on land, an individual will forget about absurd maxims about inflation created by the state monopoly on financial activity.
If to admit that people are equal, free and are owners of land, then while creating tax funds they should divide the contained equally and should pay only those who help people by their activity to live by fulfilling some social work. Let people themselves voluntarily pay for the labour of those chosen by them.
Now a tax is a payment to hated state officials. Then it will be a payment to themselves as a part of the whole for the purpose of removing antagonism in conflicts. Now taxes are obligatorily forced payments, then it will be a subjectively comprehended objective necessity and a voluntary acceptable solution of a social conflict. Now it is the deterioration of economic state of each taxpayer in order to enrich the officialdom and to enforce its power; then it will be a measure of stabilization of the economic machinery of the state collecting and inspectorating tax-collection; then people will voluntarily contribute to public funds (in reality to themselves) as a conflicting compensation with obligatory refunding. In this case it is in their interests to control the tax policy. Now it is confiscation in favour of state owners of land; then it will be money credit for the use of bank credit of land as land was always more multidimensional than its commodity part.
If there are no state taxes and functionaries, there will be no abuse and embezzlement of public funds.
State programmes will be changed for public ones, the functionaries' policy will be substituted for people's one.
Different social groups will defend their life position, state lobbying based on antagonism will recede to the past.
The official diktat, authority will give way to public acknowledgement of personal qualities.
To suppose that people will reject the state on one occasion and realize a new form of their existence is unreal, and the main thing is that it is not necessary. The state will be transformed into a public organization having the party status founded on voluntary principles. The refusal from obligatory forced taxes will allow to get rid of corruption, embezzlement of public funds, cruelty and keen struggle for key positions. As the fight between parties begins at the approaches to state power, i.e. state manger of taxes.
World free market and the international language of communication with the existence of its own national language by every nation are necessary. The cult of national languages disintegrates people, makes them isolated, characterizes the unique nature of their culture, but human community and international unity demand direct understanding in communication for the purpose of the complete manifestation of the unique nature not only of the nation but of the individual regardless of his belonging to any nation, as sovereignty should concern neither nations nor people, nor state but the individual with its unique character.
Patriotism, shauvinism and nationalism are notions typical of the system of private property of the state on the Earth's space and they will be rejected by life when this space is socialized.
In new economic conditions such social and moral problems as relationship between the old and the younger generations the relationship of sexes, the upbringing of the future generation will have a tendency to be solved on the principles of humaneness.
A new approach to human values will strengthen the public morals and will help create a new general human culture.
New economic, social and moral principles should have the status of the norms of the constitution.
1. Every sensible being has the right to freely use power which is equal to the share of common space.
2. Every person on the Earth is free to connect conflicting payments of the extermination of antagonism which are called taxes and to get an equal share of the created fund of public wealth which reflects the flourishing of the socialized nature of the Earth and to live according the mutually-agreed obligations.
3. Every person has an equal right to ownership on the whole territory of the planet.
4. Every person is equal with others in every sphere of activity. Equality is materialized by the life right of ownership style= "mso-spacerun:yes"> on an equal share of public space.
5. Every person is absolutely free and acknowledges absolute freedom for every sensible being. He realizes his right to freedom, power supply laid down in the equal share of public space.
6. Every person admits money to be commodity common commodity equivalent.
7. Every person is in need of the common international language of communication.
8. Every person admits ample freedom in economy. The treaty is a guarantee of freedom. The treaty is defined by knowledge and directed by knowledge.
9. Man creates taxes exclusively on voluntary basis and can't be subjected to force as he uses his share according to his will.
I think that the way out from the crisis for society is open, there is only the question of time for everybody to get this knowledge. This knowledge does not demand organizations of the state type, does not need the formation of parties and force structures for its activity, needs neither army, nor courts, nor prisons.
It does not destroy wealth, it does not create poverty, it cures social illnesses and gives intelligent perspective which is called progress.
For proposals:
Nizhni Novgorod tel/fax (8312) 410344

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